Geopoll: The Disparate Impacts of COVID-19 on Women and Men Across Kenya

2021年7月27日

Background

COVID-19 has had disastrous economic and social effects on populations around the globe. While these effects are felt by many, women often experience outsized impacts. 联合国难民事务高级专员的研究报告, 联合国开发计划署, and International Labour Organization show that government lockdowns and school closures have forced many women to take on additional burdens in unpaid domestic work and 照顾孩子, 导致一些人辞去自己的工作. Heightened levels of stress and hardship combined with the inability for women to leave home freely have led to increases in 性别-based violence. School closures have also put girls at an increased risk of 性别-based violence, and early pregnancies and reduced their access to education and facilities related to menstrual hygiene.

用这个背景, 联合国妇女, along with the Kenyan government and other partners including United Nations Population Fund, 牛津饥荒救济委员会, 和联合利华, conducted an assessment of the disparate effects of COVID-19 on women and men. GeoPoll, 提供远程服务的先驱, 非洲各地的移动研究解决方案, 拉丁美洲, 和亚洲, 和益普索为这项研究收集了原始数据. The aim of the study was to analyze the 性别ed socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 in Kenya and provide policy recommendations to guide responses and recovery plans.

方法

Data for this study was collected from August to September 2020 via GeoPoll’s Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) application. CATI calls were made from a local call center using interviewers trained by GeoPoll in conjunction with 联合国妇女, and respondents could choose to respond in either English or Swahili. A separate SMS-based survey was conducted on 性别-based violence due to the sensitive nature of the questions asked. SMS allows respondents to answer in private, making it an ideal mode for asking sensitive questions.

CATI研究的样本量为2,587, and respondents were randomly selected from a larger sample of 36,884. 样本按年龄分层, 性别, and place of residence (county) based on the 2019 Kenyan National Bureau of Statistic Census. CATI的研究分两波进行, with each wave having its own questionnaire covering different topics. Only individuals who completed both waves were included in the final sample of 2,587. 短信调查有2482个单独的样本. The split between men and women was roughly equal for the CATI study, and the largest group of respondents were aged 25-34 in accordance with the demographic profile of the country. Respondents from all 47 counties in Kenya were included to ensure an even coverage of urban and rural areas.

结果

基于本研究, the results across a range of categories demonstrate that women in Kenya are feeling the effects of COVID-19 more than their male counterparts. More than 20% of women have lost all sources of income during the pandemic compared to 12% of men. Fewer women (68%) than men (76%) claim to have access to money for their own decision making. 女性在家务劳动方面也有了更大的增长, 照顾孩子, 和男性相比,在大流行期间在家上学. All these factors suggest a decline in women’s economic empowerment due to the pandemic.

While more men than women say they have been unable to access healthcare for chronic illnesses due to COVID-19, women report disruptions in access to maternal health and healthcare services related to 性别-based violence. Women also report higher levels of COVID-related mental health issues, such as stress and anxiety. Our study shows that more than 90% of women say they have no or decreased access to menstrual hygiene products due to COVID-19.

根据12betapp的研究, acts or threats of violence occurred both in and outside the home during the pandemic. Physical violence was the most common form reported in urban areas, while women in rural areas report higher incidences of child marriage. Discussions with key informants revealed that overall incidences of violence increased during lockdown phases of the pandemic, 35%的女性说她们不知道去哪里寻求帮助.

这项研究的完整结果可以在 联合国妇女署2019冠状病毒病性别评估报告. GeoPoll’s results have been used by 联合国妇女 and partners to create concrete policy recommendations for the Kenyan government and other stakeholders to improve services for women during the pandemic. The recommendations include increasing stimulus packages to women-owned small and medium enterprises, providing access to free internet or digital services for children to continue education, 通过公共设施提供月经卫生用品, and sending SMS messages with information on where to seek help in the case of 性别-based violence.